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Are you worried about side effects?

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bluesheart

Posts : 147
Join date : 2014-12-20
20150120

Are you worried about side effects?

Post by bluesheart

This guide concerns antibiotics along with various side effects

Note this is for reference only and if you are having any problems then make sure to consult the medical profession.

Antibiotics

Amikacin Amikin
Gentamicin Garamycin
Kanamycin Kantrex
Neomycin Mycifradin
Netilmicin Netromycin
Tobramycin Nebcin
Paromomycin Humatin

Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against Aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes) and tularemia.

Hearing loss
Vertigo
Kidney damage

Binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work by binding to the 50S subunit), inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.

Geldanamycin Experimental, as antitumor antibiotics
Herbimycin

Loracarbef Lorabid Discontinued

Ertapenem Invanz
Doripenem Doribax
Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin
Meropenem Merrem

Bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial coverage. (Note MRSA resistance to this class.)
Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea

Nausea
Seizures
Headache
Rash and allergic reactions
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis

Cefadroxil Duricef
Cefazolin Ancef
Cefalotin or Cefalothin Keflin
Cefalexin Keflex

Good coverage against Gram positive infections.
Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.

Cefaclor Ceclor
Cefamandole Mandol
Cefoxitin Mefoxin
Cefprozil Cefzil
Cefuroxime Ceftin, Zinnat

Less gram positive cover, improved gram negative cover.
Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.


Cefixime Suprax
Cefdinir Omnicef, Cefdiel
Cefditoren Spectracef
Cefoperazone Cefobid
Cefotaxime Claforan
Cefpodoxime Vantin
Ceftazidime Fortaz
Ceftibuten Cedax
Ceftizoxime Cefizox
Ceftriaxone Rocephin

proved coverage of Gram negative organisms, except Pseudomonas. Reduced Gram positive cover.
Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.

Cefepime Maxipime

Covers pseudomonal infections.
Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.

Ceftobiprole Zeftera Used to treat MRSA
Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.

Teicoplanin Targocid
Vancomycin Vancocin
Telavancin Vibativ
inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis

Clindamycin Cleocin
Lincomycin Lincocin

Serious staph-, pneumo-, and streptococcal infections in penicillin-allergic patients, also anaerobic infections; clindamycin topically for acne Possible C. difficile-related pseudomembranous enterocolitis Bind to 50S subunit of bacterial RNA thereby inhibiting protein synthesis


Daptomycin Cubicin Gram-positive organisms

Bind to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis


Azithromycin Zithromax, Sumamed, Zitrocin
Clarithromycin Biaxin
Dirithromycin Dynabac
Erythromycin Erythocin, Erythroped
Roxithromycin
Troleandomycin TAO
Telithromycin Ketek Pneumonia Visual Disturbance, Liver Toxicity.[3]
Spectinomycin Trobicin Gonorrhea

Streptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, mycoplasmal infections, Lyme disease
Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (especially at higher doses)
Jaundice
inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of peptidyl tRNA.

Aztreonam Azactam

Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.

Furazolidone Furoxone Bacterial or protozoal diarrhea or enteritis
Nitrofurantoin Macrodantin, Macrobid Urinary tract infections

Amoxicillin Novamox, Amoxil
Ampicillin Principen
Azlocillin
Carbenicillin Geocillin
Cloxacillin Tegopen
Dicloxacillin Dynapen
Flucloxacillin Floxapen
Mezlocillin Mezlin
Methicillin Staphcillin
Nafcillin Unipen
Oxacillin Prostaphlin
Penicillin G Pentids
Penicillin V Pen-Vee-K
Piperacillin Pipracil
Temocillin Negaban
Ticarcillin Ticar

Wide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, and Lyme disease
Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions
Brain and kidney damage (rare)
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.

Amoxicillin/clavulanate Augmentin
Ampicillin/sulbactam Unasyn
Piperacillin/tazobactam Zosyn
Ticarcillin/clavulanate Timentin

The second component prevents bacterial resistance to the first component

Bacitracin
Colistin Coly-Mycin-S
Polymyxin B

Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane [4]

Interact with the gram negative bacterial outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane. It displaces bacterial counter ions, which destabilizes the outer membrane. They act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane, which alters its permeability. Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an isosmotic solution.

Eye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection

Kidney and nerve damage (when given by injection)

Ciprofloxacin Cipro, Ciproxin, Ciprobay.
Enoxacin Penetrex
Gatifloxacin Tequin
Levofloxacin Levaquin
Lomefloxacin Maxaquin
Moxifloxacin Avelox
Nalidixic acid NegGram
Norfloxacin Noroxin
Ofloxacin Floxin, Ocuflox
Trovafloxacin Trovan Withdrawn
Grepafloxacin Raxar Withdrawn
Sparfloxacin Zagam Withdrawn
Temafloxacin Omniflox Withdrawn

Urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrhea Nausea (rare), irreversible damage to central nervous system (uncommon), tendinosis (rare) inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription

Mafenide Sulfamylon
Sulfonamidochrysoidine (archaic) Prontosil
Sulfacetamide Sulamyd, Bleph-10
Sulfadiazine Micro-Sulfon
Silver sulfadiazine Silvadene
Sulfamethizole Thiosulfil Forte
Sulfamethoxazole Gantanol
Sulfanilimide (archaic)
Sulfasalazine Azulfidine
Sulfisoxazole Gantrisin
Trimethoprim Proloprim, Trimpex
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX) Bactrim, Septra


Urinary tract infections (except sulfacetamide, used for eye infections, and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns)

Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
Allergy (including skin rashes)
Crystals in urine
Kidney failure
Decrease in white blood cell count
Sensitivity to sunlight

Folate synthesis inhibition. They are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, DHPS. DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA (para-aminobenzoate) to dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells will be unable to divide.

Demeclocycline Declomycin
Doxycycline Vibramycin
Minocycline Minocin
Oxytetracycline Terramycin
Tetracycline Sumycin, Achromycin V, Steclin

Syphilis, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acne rickettsial infections, *malaria *Note: Malaria is caused by a protist and not a bacterium.

Gastrointestinal upset
Sensitivity to sunlight
Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy
Enamel hypoplasia (staining of teeth; potentially permanent)
transient depression of bone growth

inhibiting the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex. They do so mainly by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit in the mRNA translation complex.


Clofazimine Lamprene Antileprotic
Dapsone Avlosulfon Antileprotic
Capreomycin Capastat Antituberculosis
Cycloserine Seromycin Antituberculosis, urinary tract infections
Ethambutol Myambutol Antituberculosis
Ethionamide Trecator Antituberculosis Inhibits peptide synthesis
Isoniazid I.N.H. Antituberculosis
Pyrazinamide Aldinamide Antituberculosis
Rifampicin (Rifampin in US) Rifadin, Rimactane mostly Gram-positive and mycobacteria
Rifabutin Mycobutin Mycobacterium avium complex rash, discolored urine, GI symptoms
Rifapentine Priftin Antituberculosis
Streptomycin Antituberculosis Neurotoxicity, ototoxicity
As other aminoglycosides

Reddish-orange sweat, tears, and urine Binds to the β subunit of RNA polymerase to inhibit transcription


Arsphenamine Salvarsan Spirochaetal infections (obsolete)
Chloramphenicol Chloromycetin

meningitis, MRSA, topical use, or for low cost internal treatment. Historic: typhus, cholera. gram negative, gram positive, anaerobes Rarely: aplastic anemia. Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome

Fosfomycin Monurol Acute cystitis in women Inactivates enolpyruvyl transferase, thereby blocking cell wall synthesis

Fusidic acid Fucidin

Linezolid Zyvox VRSA Thrombocytopenia

Metronidazole Flagyl I

infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; also amoebiasis, trichomoniasis, Giardiasis
Discolored urine, headache, metallic taste, nausea ; alcohol is contraindicated Produces toxic free radicals which disrupt DNA and proteins. This non-specific mechanism is responsible for its activity against a variety of bacteria, amoebae, and protozoa.

Mupirocin Bactroban Ointment for impetigo, cream for infected cuts

Platensimycin
Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Synercid
Rifaximin Xifaxan Traveler's diarrhea caused by E. coli
Thiamphenicol Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes. widely used in veterinary medicine. Lacks known anemic side-effects.
Tigecycline Tigacyl
Tinidazole Tindamax Fasigyn protozoan infections upset stomach, bitter taste, and itchiness

A chloramphenicol analog. May inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
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    Current date/time is Fri Nov 24, 2017 2:30 pm